Turkey currently hosts the largest number of refugees and asylum seekers in the world. The majority of registered refugees in Turkey – approximately 3.6 million – are Syrians who have fled the civil war in their country since 2011.? Turkey also hosts more than 360,000 refugees and persons of concern from other countries, most notably Iraq, Iran, Afghanistan, and Somalia.? Refugees in Turkey have acute needs in a number of areas despite the response efforts of local and international partners. Among the Syrian refugee population, it is estimated that 64% of households are living below the poverty line, and approximately 400,000 children are out of school.?

There has been an escalation of violence between government forces and the PKK since 2015, creating further humanitarian concerns in southeast Turkey. Up to 1.1 million people may have been internally displaced as a result of conflict.? Humanitarian access is highly constrained in the areas most affected by violence, which makes the delivery of assistance more difficult, as well as contributing to large information gaps about humanitarian needs. ?

INFORM measures Turkey's risk of humanitarian crisis and disaster to be high, at 5/10. Hazard and exposure are of particular concern, at a 7.8/10 rate.

Latest Developments

No recent significant humanitarian developments. This country is being monitored by our analysis team. 

Key priorities

Food: More than 90% of refugees in Turkey live outside camps, but around 56% of Syrian refugees living within host communities are not receiving any food assistance. ?

Livelihoods: It is very difficult for Syrian refugees to obtain work permits, limiting their livelihood opportunities. Only 22,000 of over 3.5 million Syrian refugees have been issued work permits since January 2016. ?

Education:  Over 350,000 (38%) Syrian refugee children are still out of school. Temporary education centres are not always available and are stretched beyond capacity. ?

Health: Health services are under strain, especially in the eastern and southeastern provinces.  ?

Protection: Migrants face physical abuse and arrest for lack of documentation. Arbitrary detention and punishment, extra-judicial execution, suspension and dismissals are all risks for opponents of the government. ?

Information Gaps and needs

- Press freedom has declined, with recurring shutdowns of mainstream and social media, resulting in less information available. 

- Access to southeast Turkey is extremely controlled. No information available on needs of IDPs in the region.

-There is a lack of information regarding sectoral humanitarian needs of refugees and IDPs in Turkey.